Development Status and Application Prospect of Internet of Vehicles

Internet of vehicles is a typical application of Internet of things technology in the field of transportation. With the improvement of market maturity, its connotation has been further expanded. This paper discusses the Internet of vehicles in a narrow sense, that is, telematics service (on-board information service system), which refers to a service system that integrates users and various service resources through the vehicle terminal.

This paper attempts to find the correct development path of the Internet of vehicles in the future by combing and discriminating several existing development modes of the Internet of vehicles.

introduction

In 2015, Premier Li Keqiang put forward the "Internet plus" action plan to promote the integration of mobile Internet, cloud computing, big data and Internet of things with modern manufacturing industry, promote healthy development of e-commerce, industrial Internet and Internet finance, and guide Internet companies to expand their international markets. The subversion and transformation of traditional industries by the Internet has become a trend. The Internet is not only the re excavation of the potential of the industry, but also the re transformation and subversion of traditional industries with internet thinking. From Tesla's redefinition of people's understanding of cars to apple, Google, Microsoft, Ali, Baidu, LETV and other Internet giants' full-scale battle for the Internet of cars, the era of the Internet of cars has come.

In a narrow sense, the Internet of vehicles, namely telematics service (on-board information service system), refers to a service system that integrates users and various service resources through the vehicle terminal. The generalized vehicle networking also includes intelligent transportation system.

1. Development status and application prospect of Internet of vehicles

1.1 development status of Internet of vehicles

The connotation of Internet of vehicles has developed from the earliest embryonic stage focusing on navigation to the primary stage focusing on TSP services, and then to the intermediate stage focusing on "scenario" services. "Scenario based" service is a comprehensive service system that integrates multi role and multi scenario applications for four major users, including drivers, passengers, vehicle manufacturers and vehicle managers, as shown in Table 1.

Table 1   Evolution of Internet of vehicles application scenarios

1.2 application prospect of Internet of vehicles

From the end of the Internet of vehicles, it is the realization of unmanned driving and the core part of intelligent transportation. Internet of vehicles is the core information communication platform of its (Intelligent Transportation System) in the future, playing more and more roles [1].

(1) Ensure road driving safety

The Internet of vehicles can effectively reduce the incidence of traffic accidents and make travel safer through emergency braking, accident scene early warning, intersection early warning, overspeed warning, retrograde warning, prohibition of fatigue driving and other related technologies.

(2) Prevent traffic jams

Through intelligent traffic management, the Internet of vehicles can realize road condition monitoring, early warning and non-stop billing, effectively alleviate the pressure of traffic congestion, reduce about 60% of traffic congestion, provide road utilization rate, increase the traffic capacity of existing roads by 2 3 times and shorten driving time. At the same time, it can also reduce energy consumption and reduce vehicle exhaust emissions by 25% 30% [2].

(3) Promote the upgrading of automobile industry

Implement the strategy of Internet of vehicles, bring the automobile manufacturing industry into the innovation environment of China's new communication technology, improve the ability of new automobile technology, and drive the development and upgrading of the automobile industry with digital technology.

(4) Realize intelligent transportation

All major parts of traffic management can be realized through the Internet of vehicles, such as intelligent control of traffic lights, traffic accident handling, intelligent parking lot management, electronic non-stop charging, bus intelligent dispatching, etc. the Internet of vehicles is used as the communication management platform to realize intelligent transportation.

2. Analysis on industrial chain of Internet of vehicles

The industrial structure of China's Internet of vehicles is complex, as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1   Diagram of Internet of vehicles industry chain

(1) Vehicle factory (OEM)

The vehicle factory is the carrier for the realization of the Internet of vehicles service. It is in the central position of the traditional industrial chain. It has a large voice and appeal. It can effectively integrate many resources and has great advantages in the development of the Internet of vehicles.

However, due to the competitive relationship between the vehicle manufacturers, the vehicle networking services provided by the vehicle manufacturers are only limited to their own brands, which makes the vehicle networking services of various brands independent and incompatible. Moreover, the vehicle networking services provided by the vehicle manufacturers are generally expensive and can only be bundled and installed on their own brand vehicles. The scope of customers is limited, and the afterloading market promotion is unfavorable.

(2) Content provider (CP)

Content providers mainly provide music content, video content, news content, weather content, etc., which are reflected in the forms of direct content access, on-board app, etc., and have a weak voice in the whole Internet of vehicles industry.

(3) Service provider (SP)

Service providers mainly provide security services, rescue services, call center services, insurance services, etc. most service providers cooperate with other companies (such as vehicle manufacturers, communication companies, etc.) to transform into TSP.

(4) On board information service provider (TSP)

Vehicle information service providers directly face users in the industrial chain and provide users with navigation, road information, remote diagnosis and control, entertainment information, dealer activities and other services. TSP is at the core of the whole industrial chain. It integrates and supervises the service content forward and provides services in two ways backward:

One is to act as a "white card" service provider and determine the brand by the vehicle manufacturer;

The other is to provide telematics services to users by TSP's own brand.

In addition to integrating resources and providing services, TSP also undertakes the task of collecting fees and distributing profits [3].

(5) Equipment provider (EP)

The equipment supplier shall provide on-board terminal equipment including hardware, system, software and application integration, provide supporting equipment for the whole vehicle factory as Tier 1 in the front loading market, integrate and install relevant system software, positioning software, sensing chip, GPS module and other electronic component equipment according to the design scheme provided by the whole vehicle factory, and produce special on-board terminal.

In the aftermarket, simply buy equipment or cooperate with service providers to provide TSP services. Generally speaking, the voice is not high.

(6) Communication provider (TP)

Communication providers provide wireless network communication services, including network services and telephone services, which are the infrastructure for the realization of vehicle networking. In China, they are mainly China Mobile, China Unicom and China Telecom.

(7) Government

The government is not only the supervisor and guide in the Internet of vehicles industry chain, but also the user of Internet of vehicles services, which plays a leading and promoting role in this industry.

3. Analysis on the development mode of Internet of vehicles

Through the analysis of the Internet of vehicles industrial chain, it is known that TSP is in the core position in the whole industrial chain. It integrates and supervises the service content forward and provides services to users backward. It is classified according to the status of market participants in providing TSP services. There are the following development modes in the market.

3.1 the whole vehicle factory is in the leading position

The whole vehicle factory independently provides TSP services or controls other TSP service providers to provide services. The whole vehicle factory has many profitable items in the Internet of vehicles industrial chain:

In addition to the fees paid by users for purchasing terminal equipment and ordering package services, vehicle manufacturers can obtain a certain profit share through cooperation with third parties;

Advertising revenue of new media platform according to the preferences and needs of catering, entertainment and leisure places involved in car owners' travel;

Based on the interest point sharing and interest point ranking of car owners' interactive participation, the income obtained from the life service hot spot platform and the introduction of hot CP / SP resources.

Whether self operated TSP or other TSP suppliers provide services, the main engine plant has the highest revenue share due to its dominant position and large amount of investment in advance. However, looking at the whole vehicle networking market, there is no TSP service dominated by the whole vehicle plant to make a profit. According to the current situation of China's Internet of vehicles market, the development mode led by vehicle manufacturers can be divided into three types: self operated, joint venture and pure outsourcing.

(1) Self operated

The vehicle factory establishes its own brand of vehicle networking service, and its companies or departments provide services. Represented by Dongfeng Nissan, its Dongfeng Nissan data marketing company provides carwings Zhixing TSP services. Because it is self operated, the vehicle factory has complete control, high internal communication efficiency, timely solve problems and respond to user feedback in a timely manner.

At the same time, the vehicle factory also faces some difficulties:

The whole vehicle factory lacks experience in networking service construction and follow-up operation, and the control cost is high;

Secondly, the initial investment is huge, such as the establishment of T platform, call center and the establishment of special companies or departments, with high cost;

The companies or departments under the vehicle factory conduct management and operation, with low requirements for profitability, low pressure and lack of long-term development driving force.

(2) Joint venture

The vehicle factory and TSP professional service provider establish a joint venture to jointly operate the vehicle networking services of brand vehicles under the vehicle factory. Represented by anjixing, OnStar and SAIC hold 40% shares respectively, and SAIC GM holds 20% shares. Shanghai anjixing company was established to provide security oriented Internet of vehicles services for Cadillac and Chevrolet under GM.

In the joint venture mode, vehicle manufacturers and professional TSP suppliers are under public management and operation, and can share resources, experience and talents, with obvious advantages. However, as a subsidiary of the holding company of the vehicle factory, it has a large operational independence and mainly focuses on profits, which may affect the overall vehicle networking strategy of the vehicle factory. Moreover, the cooperation between two or more parties may produce interest disputes and large internal friction.

(3) Pure outsourcing

The vehicle factory has signed an outsourcing agreement with the TSP professional service provider. The outsourcing TSP service provider provides flag and off vehicle networking services for the vehicle factory, represented by the outsourcing of Toyota G-book to 95190. The advantage of this mode is that the vehicle factory can not only manage and control TSP, dominate the business direction, but also ensure the efficient operation of TSP services. After all, the third-party TSP has a professional team, operation management experience, a full set of operation qualification and sound management process.

However, there are also problems. The third-party TSP not only serves a vehicle factory, but also has the risk of data leakage for the vehicle factory. And once the vehicle factory wants to operate the vehicle networking business, the replacement cost is high.

3.2 communication operators are in a dominant position

The dominant business model of communication operators mainly appears in the afterloading market. Communication operators develop a complete set of systems related to Internet of vehicles Services by themselves, including building TSP service operation platform, planning service functions, procurement and contracting of content, formulating sales strategy, pricing and charging, and all activities related to operation. All revenues are distributed by the communication operators according to the cost and the profit contribution rate of each participant. The communication operators have the largest investment and the highest share of revenue.

Development Status and Application Prospect of Internet of Vehicles 1

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