Hardware Design of Induction Motor Vector Control Based on Tms320f2806

With the development of DSP and power devices, variable frequency speed regulation technology has become the main driving force of scientific and technological development. With the introduction of special motor control devices with real-time signal processor and highly integrated intelligent power module (IPM), induction motor control system powered by frequency converter is widely used. Because the power converter can adjust the motor voltage, current amplitude and frequency in real time, the control system can obtain the best performance.

The traditional constant voltage frequency ratio control is one of the most basic common control methods of induction motor, but this method analyzes the running state and characteristics of the motor from the mechanical characteristics of the motor, and the dynamic effect is not ideal. The vector conversion control of induction motor can make the speed regulation performance of induction motor comparable to that of DC motor. Vector transformation technology skillfully realizes the reconstruction and decoupling control of induction motor flux and torque, so that the induction motor speed regulation system tends to high performance. The realization of vector transformation control needs to complete the functions of coordinate transformation, speed control, current detection, flux estimation, PWM signal generation and fault detection protection in real time. It has a large amount of data and high requirements for real-time and accuracy. Compared with traditional single chip microcomputer, DSP has high integration, fast CPU and large capacity memory, and can provide high-speed synchronous serial port and standard asynchronous serial port. In particular, DSP's simplified instruction system, independent program and data space make it have high-speed data operation ability, and can design a vector control speed regulation system with simple structure and superior performance, Therefore, DSP is widely used in motor control system.

This paper introduces the basic structure and performance of tms320f2806, and gives the hardware design scheme and software control algorithm of induction motor vector control (rotor field oriented control). The system design makes full use of tms320f2806's rich peripheral components and strong computing ability. The system circuit structure is simple and anti-interference is strong. The experimental results show that the vector control system has good dynamic and static speed regulation performance.

2 Introduction to tms320f2806

TMS320F280x series is the digital signal processor of Texas Instruments. This series of processor is a fixed-point DSP based on TMS320C2xx core. It is a series of motion control devices with high integration and strong performance. A variety of advanced peripherals are integrated in the device to provide a good platform for motor and other control applications. The internal functional structure of TMS320F280x series is shown in Figure 1.

Compared with the previous TMS320F24x series, TMS320F280x series digital signal processor improves the operation accuracy and system processing capacity; Compared with TMs320F281x DSP controller. Two event manager modules EVA and EVB in TMs320F281x DSP are omitted. The function of event manager module is replaced by enhanced peripheral modules epwm, ECAP and eqep, so that designers can effectively solve challenging control problems. The high-speed operation capability of TMS320F280x ensures the real-time control. The large capacity storage space can meet the storage requirements without expanding the off-chip ram, and ensures the high reliability of the control system. It is an upgraded product of motor digital control. The main features of tms320f2806 are as follows:

Using high-performance static CMOS technology, the supply voltages of core and I / O are 1.8 V and 3.3 V respectively, which reduces the loss of controller; The execution speed of 100 mi / s shortens the instruction cycle to 10 ns and improves the real-time control of the controller;

The chip contains up to 32 KB × 16 flash program memory, 10 KB × 16 bit SRAM, 10 KB × 16 bit OTPROM and 4 KB × 16 bit boot ROM;

12 bit a / D converter with a minimum conversion time of 160 ns and 8 or 16 multiplexed input channels. The sampling time is separated from the conversion time, which improves the sampling rate and input impedance. Support automatic sequential sampling without CPU intervention;

Up to 16 PWM channels provide convenience for efficient motor control (dual motor control), of which 6 channels are hrpwm (high-resolution pulse width modulation), and the time step accuracy is up to 150 PS, which can control all types of motors;

ECAN bus controller can provide good communication for controllers, sensors, excitation sources and other nodes. It is suitable for large noise and harsh environment such as industrial field and automobile.

Hardware circuit design of three-phase induction motor system

The hardware block diagram of low-power asynchronous motor variable frequency speed regulation system controlled by tms320f2806 is shown in Figure 2. The inverter system adopts DSP as the operation control unit, the power circuit conversion unit adopts the fifth generation low-power intelligent module (IPM) ps21564 of Mitsubishi company, the Hall current sensor of LEM company is used to detect the two-phase current of the motor, and the Hall voltage sensor is used to detect the bus voltage of the inverter. The three-phase power frequency power supply is rectified by the rectifier bridge and filtered by the capacitor to obtain the DC voltage, which is sent to the P terminal and N terminal of the DC input terminal of the inverter IPM module. The tms320f2806 controller calculates and processes the detection signal, and the space vector algorithm generates three pairs of svp-wm pulse signals with a mutual difference of 120 °, which act on the ps21564 control input (up, VP, WP, UN, VN and WN) after photoelectric isolation. The output terminals u, V and W of ps21564 output three high-voltage SVPWM waveforms with a mutual difference of 120 ° to drive the asynchronous motor, change its output frequency and realize variable frequency speed regulation of the asynchronous motor. Because the ps21564 has short circuit, undervoltage and overheating detection circuits and protection functions, when a fault occurs, the ps21564 latches six internal ICBT power tubes and sends the fault signal to the power protection interrupt pin of tms320f2806; Tms320f2806 immediately latches the output of PWM waveform and sends a power protection interrupt request to tms320f2806.

4 Design of vector control software for three-phase induction motor

Vector transformation control (hereinafter referred to as vector control) is based on the system mathematical model established by the physical structure of the motor. Through a series of vector transformations (three-phase two-phase transformation (Clarke transformation), vector rotation transformation (Park transformation, park inverse transformation), the original system mathematical model is transformed into the equivalent orthogonal two-phase model (DQ model) in the common coordinate system , independently control each component of the relevant vector (such as current or flux linkage) in the common coordinate system. The control quantity (such as current and voltage) in the three-phase coordinate system is obtained by using the inverse transformation of the vector to realize the control of the induction motor.

The common coordinate system (DQ) in the vector transformation control of induction motor usually establishes the d-axis on the vector position corresponding to a certain magnetic field, that is, the common coordinate system is determined by the magnetic field vector. Therefore, the vector transformation control of induction motor is also called field oriented control (FOC) There are three kinds of magnetic fields in three-phase induction motor: stator magnetic field, air gap synthetic magnetic field and rotor magnetic field, so there are three kinds of field oriented control methods. The rotor field oriented control is adopted in this system.

4.1 vector control algorithm of three-phase induction motor

In order to achieve high-precision speed closed-loop control and magnetic field orientation, speed sensors must be installed on the motor shaft. However, it is not allowed to connect any speed and position detection elements externally in many occasions. The installation of speed sensors will reduce the reliability of the speed regulation system to a certain extent. Therefore, this paper adopts speed sensorless vector control frequency conversion speed regulation based on rotor flux orientation The functional block diagram of the orientation algorithm is shown in Figure 3. The key of the system design is to calculate the flux linkage and flux angle through the flux estimation module, and then estimate the rotor angular speed through the open-loop speed estimation module. The superscript "s" and "e" in Figure 3 represent the static coordinate system and synchronous rotation coordinate system respectively, the superscript "I" and "V" represent the current model and voltage model respectively, and the subscripts "d" and "Q" Represent the vector components on d-axis and q-axis respectively, and subscripts "s" and "R" represent the parameters of stator and rotor respectively.

In order to make the system have good dynamic performance and steady-state accuracy, the speed controller and current controller adopt integral separated PI control. The given value of torque component ie * QS and excitation component ie * ds of stator current are given in the synchronous rotating coordinate system. Ie * QS is the output of speed controller, ie * DS is proportional to the given value of rotor flux linkage, and can be given directly. Two current controllers The output of is the two components ve * QS and ve * ds of the given value of the stator voltage vector in the synchronous rotating coordinate system. They pass through the inverse Park transform and space vector transform module, and then the pulse generation circuit of DSP finally generates the PWM signal. The current feedback signal obtains the feedback quantities IEDs and ieqs of the two currents through Clarke transform and park transform. The input of the flux estimation module is the voltage feedback signal Through the output of the phase voltage reconstruction module and the output of the Clarke transform, the rotor flux angle is calculated by the flux estimation module algorithm θλ r. Finally, the speed feedback value? R is obtained by the speed estimation module.

4.2 realization of vector control software for three-phase induction motor

The control software is composed of initialization program and operation program. The software flow chart is shown in Figure 4. The initialization program completes the initialization and enable interrupt of DSP hardware and software variables. The operation program includes infinite cycle and interrupt service program. The interrupt service program consists of current and speed detection signal processing, coordinate transformation, flux estimation, open-loop speed estimation and SVPWM signal generation Each functional module is executed in a fixed time cycle according to a certain sequence, and the running of the program is interrupted by epwm1 time base cnt_zero.

5 experimental results

In order to make the system have good portability, all physical variables (current, voltage, flux linkage, flux angle, speed, torque, etc.) are pre processed by per unit PU. Among them, the reference value of motor speed is set to ω* R = 0.5pu = 900 RPM (1pu = 1800 rpm), load torque T1 = 0.136pu (1 N.m), given value of excitation component ie * DS = 0.4pu (2 a). The system takes tms320f2806 DSP as the core and adopts 32-bit fixed-point algorithm (calling iqmath library function) , the program is written in C language. Through the simulation test in ccs2.2 development environment, the motor no-load and loading operation results are shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. Compared with the two simulation results, the current waveform sinusoidal in this design scheme is good regardless of no-load or loading. The system can quickly reach the steady state, almost without overshoot, with small steady-state error and stable motor operation.

6 Conclusion

The experimental results show that the speed sensorless vector control scheme proposed in this paper has reasonable design, high control accuracy and good dynamic and static performance. The system is based on high-performance digital signal processor tms320f2806, combined with the advantages of traditional voltage model method and current model method, can accurately observe the flux linkage in both high-speed and low-speed range, and complete the transformation control strategy in real time Coordinate transformation, speed control, current detection, flux estimation and PWM signal generation, so as to realize the high-performance variable frequency speed regulation control of three-phase induction motor.

Hardware Design of Induction Motor Vector Control Based on Tms320f2806 1

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