Knowledge About Frontal Plane

Structure of frontal plane

It arises, on a level with the upper border of the second right costal cartilage, from the start of the aortic arch, on a plane anterior to the origin of the left carotid artery; it ascends obliquely upward, backward, and to the right to the level of the upper border of the right sternoclavicular articulation, where it divides into the right common carotid artery and right subclavian arteries. The artery then crosses the trachea in front of it obliquely from the left to the right, roughly at the middle of the trachea or the level of the ninth tracheal cartilage.

In infants, it often divides cephalad to the sternoclavicular articulation, within the anterior triangle of the neck.

BranchesThe thyreoidea ima (arteria thyreoidea ima) ascends in front of the trachea to the lower part of the thyroid gland, which it supplies.

VariationThe innominate artery usually gives off no branches, but occasionally a small branch, the thyreoidea ima, arises from it. Other times, it gives off a thymic or bronchial branch.

It varies greatly in size, and appears to compensate for deficiency or absence of one of the other thyroid vessels. It occasionally arises from the aorta, the right common carotid, the subclavian or the internal mammary.


Battle of frontal plane

The battle began on the 4 July at 9:00a.m. with the explosion of a large mine just 30 yards short of the main Paraguayan redoubt, followed by a massive frontal attack. Part of the redoubt was seized by the attackers. The Bolivian army engaged the defenders with artillery and mortar fire, air strikes, three Vickers light tanks, two Carden-Lloyd tankettes and four flamethrowers. The attackers staged a two-pronged assault, one from the north and the other from the south, while a diversionary force established a blocking position in the center. The Paraguayan troops responded with their own artillery fire and 7.62mm armor-piercing rounds. They eventually recovered the fortifications that had been overrun by the Bolivians.

The Bolivians lost one tank to artillery fire, while one of the tankettes was damaged by small-arms fire and the other became stuck in a ditch. Both of them were withdrawn from the front line after this battle, while the crippled tank was eventually blown up by Paraguayan sappers. Four Potez 25s fighter-bombers being used as transport aircraft resupplied the exhausted Paraguayan stockpiles by delivering hand grenades and ammunition. The planes were stripped of their rear machine guns in order to use the gunner's cockpit to load 115 kilograms (254lb) of ammunition. The aircraft departed from Isla Po to the south flying over hostile territory and landed on an improvised airstrip close to the battle lines. The airstrip had been hastily built during the first Bolivian offensive. The pilots handed over 1,650kg of ammunition to the stronghold on the first day of operation. Three Potez 25s were hit by ground fire and forced to make hard landings, but all were eventually recovered and rebuilt.

Knowledge About Frontal Plane 1


Clinically relevant anatomical planes with associated structures of frontal plane

The transverse thoracic plane

Plane through T4 & T5 vertebral junction and sternal angle of Louis.

Marks the:

Attachment of costal cartilage of rib 2 at the sternal angle;

Aortic arch (beginning and end);

Upper margin of SVC;

Thoracic duct crossing;

Tracheal bifurcation;

Pulmonary trunk bifurcation;

The xiphosternal plane (a.k.a. xiphosternal junction)

Anterior, inferior limit of thoracic cavity;

Marks the:

Superior surface of the liver;

Respiratory diaphragm;

Inferior border of the heart;

The transpyloric plane

Plane located halfway between the jugular notch and the upper border of the symphysis pubis;

Typically located at the lower border of L1;

Cuts through the pylorus and the tips of the ninth costal cartilages;

The subcostal plane

Transverse plane through the inferior border of costal margin;

Typically located at the superior border of L3, or transects L3;

The umbilical plane (or transumbilical plane)

Located at the level of L3/L4 vertebral junction or IV disc;

The supracristal plane

Located at the level of L4;

Marks bifurcation of aorta;

Most superior aspect of iliac crest;

The intertubercular plane (a.k.a. Transtubercular plane)

Located at the level of L5;

Marks origin of IVC;

The interspinous plane

Transverse plane which transverses the anterior superior iliac spines.

Typically located at the level of S1.


Development of frontal plane

PhylogeneticallyIt is thought that a majority of existing animals, including Homo sapiens, have evolved from a common wormlike ancestor that lived around 600 million years ago, called the urbilaterian. A bilaterian animal is one that has symmetrical left and right body halves. While it is still debated whether this species had a complex brain or not, development of similar species support the hypothesis that it had at least a simple anterior collection of nerve cells, called a cephalon. Furthermore, studies have shown that this cephalon was bilateral, consisting of two or more connected sub-collections that are separated by the mid-sagittal plane, suggesting the first example of such a division.

OntogeneticallyA neural crest appears in the mammalian embryo as soon as the 20th day of development. It is during embryonic development that a neural tube appears and is folded into a hollow structure, as shown in Figure 1. This process is also known as neurulation. The neural tube is where the central nervous system forms, which later on in development will be subdivided and differentiated into distinct sections of the brain and spinal cord. These subdivisions occur by signaling molecules that direct differentiated cells to their correct location of the organism. The bilateral sides of this structure then give rise to the two hemispheres of the Homo sapiens cortex but do not merge at any point besides the corpus callosum. As a result, the longitudinal fissure is formed. The longitudinal fissure can appear as early as the eighth week of development, and distinctly separates the two hemispheres by around the tenth gestational week.


Function of frontal plane

Essentially the fissure's purpose is to separate the brain into two hemispheres, left and right. Through case studies of brain damage or stroke to either side of each hemisphere, there is evidence that the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and the right side controlling the left side of the body. Stroke patients have been found to unilateral impairment following damage to either the left or right hemisphere, this effecting the opposite side of the body. Separating each hemisphere allows for specialization of storage, procedural and cognitive function. Through, "split-brain experiments", the left hemisphere is shown to specialize in mathematics, language and general logistics. The right hemisphere is further specialized, generally, in music, art, facial recognition and in most spatial events.

The longitudinal fissure also pays a role in the optic nerve tract. This is shown in (figure 4.) with the optic chiasm, which takes the nerve from the right eye to the left hemisphere and the left eye to the right hemisphere. The longitudinal fissure allows for this misdirection and crossover of nerves. The crossover seems to be counterintuitive, however it does serve an adaptive purpose. This purpose is to give us stereopsis, (depth and three-dimensional vision), as well as a development of binocular vision. These two components combined give the ability to have a larger perceived visual field, which coincides with the hypothesis that this is an adaptive function given by the fissures placement and structure. Damage to the nerve past the optic chiasm, will cause loss or impairment to the corresponding eye. If the right side of the brain is damaged and the nerve is damaged or destroyed, then the left eye will also follow the severity of damage.


Cascading classifiers in statistics of frontal plane

The term is also used in statistics to describe a model that is staged. For example, a classifier (for example k-means), takes a vector of features (decision variables) and outputs for each possible classification result the probability that the vector belongs to the class. This is usually used to take a decision (classify into the class with highest probability), but cascading classifiers use this output as the input to another model (another stage). This is particularly useful for models that have highly combinatorial or counting rules (for example, class1 if exactly two features are negative, class2 otherwise), which cannot be fitted without looking at all the interaction terms. Having cascading classifiers enables the successive stage to gradually approximate the combinatorial nature of the classification, or to add interaction terms in classification algorithms that cannot express them in one stage.

As a simple example, if we try to match the rule (class1 if exactly 2 features out of 3 are negative, class2 otherwise), a decision tree would be:

feature 1 negative

feature 2 negative

feature 3 negative -> class2

feature 3 positive -> class1

feature 2 positive

feature 3 negative -> class1

feature 3 positive -> class2

feature 1 positive

feature 2 negative

feature 3 negative -> class1

feature 3 positive -> class2

feature 2 positive

feature 3 negative -> class2

feature 3 positive -> class2The tree has all the combinations of possible leaves to express the full ruleset, whereas (feature1 positive, feature2 negative) and (feature1 negative, feature2 positive) should actually join to the same rule. This leads to a tree with too few samples on the leaves. A two-stage algorithm can effectively merge these two cases by giving a medium-high probability to class1 if feature1 or (exclusive) feature2 is negative. The second classifier can pick up this higher probability and make a decision on the sign of feature3.

In a bias-variance decomposition, cascaded models are usually seen as lowering bias while raising variance.

Knowledge About Frontal Plane 2


Specimens of frontal plane

A new specimen of Hesperosuchus Agilis was found from the Upper Triassic of New Mexico. According to Colbert Hesperosuchus is in a close relationship with Sphenosuchus and this assessment has been widely accepted since. There are several physical similarities between the two. The maxilla of the specimen lacks a lateral lamina that would conceal the medial wall of the fossa in lateral view similar to Sphenosuchus. The quadrate is similar as well in that it has a distinct lateral ridge along the anterior margin.

Another new specimen of an early Crocodylomorph was found in Arizona at the Petrified Forest National Park from the Upper Triassic. A major synapomorphy shared by the specimen and Sphenosuchus is the swelling of the anterior end of the dentary. Parrish and his team constructed 27 parsimonious trees and in every one the new specimen was placed as the sister group to Sphenosuchus. The specimen was rather incomplete therefore if more of the fossil is to be found this could be subject to revision. Also there is a slight issue with the synapomorphy that relates the two so closely. The swelling of the denture could be in part an ontogenetic feature. However the lack of this feature in the other specimens up for debate to be related to the specimen suggests that is in fact phylogenetically significant.


Works exhibited at the 1912 Salon d'Automne of frontal plane

Joseph Csaky exhibited the sculptures Groupe de femmes, 1911-1912 (location unknown), Portrait de M.S.H., no. 91 (location unknown), and Danseuse (Femme l'ventail, Femme la cruche) no. 405 (location unknown)

Jean Metzinger entered three works: Dancer in a caf (entitled Danseuse), La Plume Jaune (The Yellow Feather), Femme l'ventail (Woman with a Fan) (Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York), hung in the decorative arts section inside La Maison Cubiste (the Cubist House).

Francis Picabia, 1912, La Source (The Spring) (Museum of Modern Art, New York)

Fernand Lger exhibited La Femme en Bleu (Woman in Blue), 1912 (Kunstmuseum, Basel) and Le passage niveau (The Level Crossing), 1912 (Fondation Beyeler, Riehen, Switzerland)

Roger de La Fresnaye, Les Baigneuse (The bathers) 1912 (The National Gallery, Washington) and Les joueurs de cartes (Card Players)

Henri Le Fauconnier, The Huntsman (Haags Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, Netherlands) and Les Montagnards attaqus par des ours (Mountaineers Attacked by Bears) 1912 (Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design).

Albert Gleizes, l'Homme au Balcon (Man on a Balcony, Portrait of Dr. Tho Morinaud), 1912 (Philadelphia Museum of Art), also exhibited at the Armory show, New York, Chicago, Boston, 1913.

Andr Lhote, Le jugement de Paris, 1912 (Private collection)

Frantiek Kupka, Amorpha, Fugue deux couleurs (Fugue in Two Colors), 1912 (Narodni Galerie, Prague), and Amorpha Chromatique Chaude.

Alexander Archipenko, Family Life, 1912, sculpture (destroyed)

Amedeo Modigliani, exhibited four sculptures of elongated and highly stylized heads

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